What is the flu? — The flu is an infection that can cause fever, cough, body aches, and other symptoms. There are different forms of the flu, including the “seasonal” flu, the 2009-2010 pandemic H1N1 flu (also called the “swine” flu), and the bird flu. All forms of the flu are caused by viruses. The medical term for the flu is “influenza.”
What is a flu pandemic? — A flu pandemic is when a new strain of a flu virus spreads to many people in different parts of the world. Pandemic flu strains sometimes cause more severe symptoms than seasonal flu viruses (which infect some people every year). The most recent flu pandemic was in 2009-2010 and was caused by an H1N1 flu or “swine” flu virus. In the past, flu pandemics have been caused by other flu strains, such as strains of the bird flu. Bird flu (also known as “avian flu”) is a severe form of the flu that is caused by a strain of a flu virus that first infected birds.
What are the most common flu symptoms? — All forms of the flu can cause:
●Fever (temperature higher than 100ºF or 37.8ºC)
●Headache or body aches
Less common symptoms are sore throat and a runny nose.
Is the flu dangerous? — It can be. Most people get over the flu on their own, without any lasting problems. But some people need to go to the hospital because of the flu. And some people even die from it. This is because the flu can cause a serious lung infection called pneumonia. That\'s why it\'s important to keep from getting the flu in the first place.
Is there a test for flu? — Yes. There are tests for the flu. In most cases, your doctor can tell if you have the flu by your symptoms. But in some cases – for example, if you are at risk for having other problems caused by the flu – your doctor might do a test for flu.
How can I protect myself from the flu? — You can:
●Wash your hands often with soap and water, or use alcohol hand rubs
●Stay away from people you know are sick
●Get the flu vaccine every year – For people age 65 years and older, experts suggest a high-dose version of the flu shot, if it is available. In older people, the high-dose version works a little better than the standard dose version. For healthy children ages 2 to 8 years, experts recommend the nasal spray version of the vaccine instead of the shot, if it is available. If not, the shot works well, too.
What should I do if I get the flu? — If you think you have the flu, stay home, rest, and drink plenty of fluids. You can also take acetaminophen (sample brand name: Tylenol) to relieve fever and aches.
Do not give aspirin or medicines that contain aspirin to children younger than 18. In children, aspirin can cause a serious problem called Reye syndrome.
Most people with the flu get better on their own within 1 to 2 weeks. But you should call your doctor or nurse if you:
●Have trouble breathing or are short of breath
●Feel pain or pressure in your chest or belly
●Get suddenly dizzy
●Have severe vomiting
Take your child to the doctor if he or she:
●Starts breathing fast or has trouble breathing
●Starts to turn blue or purple
●Is not drinking enough fluids
●Will not wake up or will not interact with you
●Is so unhappy that he or she does not want to be held
●Gets better from the flu but then gets sick again with a fever or cough
●Has a fever with a rash
If you decide to go to a walk-in clinic or a hospital because of the flu, tell someone right away why you are there. The staff might ask you to wear a mask or to wait someplace where you are less likely to spread your infection.
Whether or not you see a doctor or nurse, you should stay home while you are sick with the flu. Do not go to work or school until your fever has been gone for at least 24 hours, without taking fever-reducing medicine, such as acetaminophen. If you work in a healthcare setting taking care of patients, you might need to stay home longer if you are still coughing. Also, always cover your mouth and nose with the inside of your elbow when you cough or sneeze.
Can the flu be treated? — Yes, people with the flu can get medicines called antiviral medicines. These medicines can help people avoid some of the problems caused by the flu. Not every person with the flu needs an antiviral medicine, but some people do. Your doctor or nurse will decide if you need an antiviral medicine. Antibiotics DO NOT WORK on the flu.
What if I am pregnant? — The flu can be very dangerous for pregnant women. If you are pregnant, it is very important that you get the flu vaccine. You should also avoid taking care of anyone who has the flu.
If you are pregnant, call your doctor or nurse right away if:
●You might have been near someone with the flu.
●You think you might be coming down with the flu. In pregnant women, the symptoms of the flu can get worse very quickly. The flu can even cause trouble breathing or lead to death of the woman or her baby. That is why it is so important that you talk to doctor or nurse as soon as you notice any of the flu symptoms listed above. You will need an antiviral medicine if you are pregnant and have the flu.